ane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Beside presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing so. Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. She is increasingly recognized as a member of the American pragmatistschool of philosophy. In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Bullies Stink Difference maker of the day... Mayor Harold Washington
On this April 12th in 1983, Harold Washington was elected the 51st Mayor of Chicago. He was the first African-American to serve in that office.
Washington was born in the Bronzeville neighborhood in 1922. He attended DuSable High School, where he starred on the track team. After Army service in World War II, he earned a B.A. at Roosevelt and a law degree at Northwestern.
He got his political start working in Ralph Metcalfe’s 3rd Ward Democratic organization. In 1965 Washington was elected to the Illinois House. Though nominally part of the Chicago Machine, he often showed an independent streak.
Washington ran into some tax problems during the 1970s and serve a short jail sentence. However, his political rise continued. He was elected to the State Senate in 1976, and to Metcalfe’s old U.S. House seat in 1980.
A statue errected in Washington's memory at 47th and King Drive.
He had run for Mayor of Chicago in the 1977 special primary and come in a distant third. But in 1983 he saw his big chance. Mayor Jane Byrne was being challenged by States Attorney Richard M. Daley. Washington entered the contest.
At first he seemed a long shot–in 1977, he had polled less than 20% of the vote. This time around, a registration drive added about 100,000 African-American voters to the rolls. And during the TV debate, Washington proved himself a thoughtful, articulate candidate.
In February Washington won the three-cornered Democratic primary with 37%. Most years that would have been the end of the story. Not in 1983.
A few of the old-guard Democrats mistrusted Washington because of his reform credentials. Most of them were simply not ready to have an African-American as Chicago’s mayor. The party chairman and many others swung their support behind the Republican candidate, Bernard Epton.
Epton was a State Rep with a long, liberal record on civil rights. But in 1983 he also saw his big chance. His campaign dug up every negative fact in Washington’s past and invented a few more. One of his slogans played on racist fears: “Vote Epton–Before It’s Too Late.”
Washington won anyway, with just under 52% of the vote. The next day, the Defender headline said it all: “Washington Wins, Dirtiest Election Is Over–Amen!”
After being elected to a second term, Harold Washington died in office in 1987. Two years later, Chicago's new central library was named for him.
The Bullies Stink difference maker of the day, Mr. Charles Albert Poland. Mr. Poland sacrificed his life to make sure that the children on his bus were not in harms way when a gunman attacked. Charles Albert Poland Jr., 66, was hailed as a hero who gave his life to protect the children on his bus. Authorities said a gunman boarded a stopped the bus Tuesday afternoon and demanded two boys between 6 and 8 years old. When Poland tried to block his way, the gunman shot him several times and took a 5-year-old boy
Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1858 – August 4, 1931) was an American surgeon. He was the first African-American cardiologist, and performed one of the first successful cardiac surgeries in the United States. He also founded Provident Hospital, the first non-segregated hospital in the United States.
In 1893, Williams continued to make history when he operated on James Cornish, a man with a severe stab wound to his chest who was brought to Provident. Without the benefits of a blood transfusion or modern surgical procedures, Williams successfully sutured Cornish’s pericardium (the membranous sac enclosing the heart), becoming the first person to perform open-heart surgery. Cornish lived for many years after the operation.
In 1894, Williams moved to Washington, D.C., where he was appointed the chief surgeon of the Freedmen’s Hospital, which provided care for formerly enslaved African Americans. The facility had fallen into deep neglect and had a high mortality rate. Williams worked diligently on revitalization, improving surgical procedures, increasing institutional specialization, allowing public viewing of surgeries, launching ambulance services and adding a multiracial staff, continuing to provide opportunities for black physicians and nursing students.
Day 2 in our Difference Makers series. Today we pay tribute to Jonas Salk. Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first successful polio vaccine. He was born in New York City to Jewish parents. Although they had little formal education, his parents were determined to see their children succeed. While attending New York University School of Medicine, Salk stood out from his peers not just because of his academic prowess, but because he went into medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician.
Carolyn Strong, BulliesStink Founder & Author
Carolyn Strong, MAT MEd